Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc.

Águas de São Pedro, S.P., Brazil

September 17-20, 2006


Abstracts are presented in alphabetical order according to first author.  Abstracts of commercial presentations and posters follow this section according to first author. 

Ethanol Production in Brazil: A Successful History, Henrique V. Amorim, Fermentec Ltda; Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

In 1975 the Brazilian government launched the "Proalcool" program to reduce oil imports. Since then, sugarcane production has increased from 91 to 406 million tons per year in 2005. Nowadays, sugarcane is cultivated by more than 70,000 farmers in an area of 6 million hectares corresponding to less than 3% of the total cultivating area in Brazil. In the same period, ethanol production jumped from 0.56 to 16.8 million m3/year while sugar production increased from 6 to 27.5 million tons/year. In Brazil, the industries balance their production based on ethanol and sugar market prices. When the sugar prices in the international market are more profitable than ethanol, more sugarcane is milled to sugar production, while the molasses is sent to fermentation and ethanol production. In the last 30 years the percentage of cane sent to sugar production has been variable (from 26.5% to 86.3%) but has been around 50% in the last 5 years.

During the "Proalcool" program the market intervention was abolished and ethanol prices liberated. To overcome the low prices and market oscillations, new technologies were developed and transferred to distilleries. The development of new cane varieties, better soil practices, control of plagues and diseases, as well as new harvest systems, increased the field productivity from 53 tons per hectare/year in 1977 to 90 tons per hectare/year in 2005. Moreover, the percentage of sugar in sugarcane was increased from 9.5% to 14% while the sugar extraction from raw cane was improved from 88% to 96-98% in the same period.

By measuring and monitoring industrial parameters of alcoholic fermentation processes, it was possible to improve the fermentation yield from 75-78% in 1977 to 90-92% in 2005. Without this improvement, it would be impossible for the distilleries to survive the low prices of the internal market. The technological and scientific advances in sugarcane and alcoholic fermentation, as well as efficient process management have consolidated the ethanol industry in Brazil. Today, there are 324 distilleries dispersed in the country with production concentrated in the Center-South and Northwest regions. In the next 5 years, more than 30 new distilleries will be built, each one with capacity to mill around 2 million tons of cane a year.

Besides, many Brazilian distilleries are based not only on sugar and ethanol but also on bioelectricity production. Sugarcane leaves and bagasse can be burned to produce steam and electrical power to industry as well as to be sold to electrical companies. Because sugar and ethanol are made during the dry season it is advantageous to produce electricity during the driest period in the year, when water reservoirs are low. In the dry season we have problems with electricity supply from hydroelectric plants, but distilleries can supply this energy, especially in critical periods.

Many Brazilian distilleries are building a successful history looking to new horizons based on ethanol, sugar and bioelectricity production.


Anaerobic Digestion of Vinasse for the Production of Methane in the Sugar Cane Distillery, Carmen Baez-Smith, Smith Baez Consulting, Inc., Loxahatchee, Florida, USA

ABSTRACT: The expansion and diversification of new alternative energy sources in a sustainable and efficient way figures strongly among the major concerns of the industrialized world. Recent energy supply crunches and price spikes have propelled ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel. Ethanol derived from renewable sources has brought a host of challenges along with opportunities to the sugar industry. Providing cost effective systems for the treatment, conservation and recycling of water and energy resources is definitively one of these challenges. Vinasse, the liquid residue left in the distillation of ethanol from sugar cane derivates, frequently pose serious disposal challenges as evidenced by its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). On an average basis, 12 cu ft of vinasse per cu ft of ethanol are produced in the distillery, with a BOD load ranging from 1.06 to 3.12 lb/cu ft of vinasse (17,000 to 50,000 mg/l). A study was carried out to assess the anaerobic digestion of vinasse for the production of methane. The purpose of this study was to gather enough data for subsequent evaluation of the technical feasibility of the process. The anaerobic digestion featured a complete mix reactor (digester) utilizing a two steps acid and methane-producing bacteria (thermophilic). Calculations data included temperature of 40ºC (104ºF) and mean cell residence time of 10 days. Results of a model built to evaluate the system indicated that a 90% BOD reduction in the vinasse could be obtained by anaerobic digestion in a sugarcane-to-ethanol distillery producing 1,500,000 cu ft per year of ethanol (38,000,000 l per year).  As a byproduct of the digestion process, methane (CH4) and other gases are produced in quantity enough to generate 3.6 to 10.60 megawatt of electricity (assuming 90% thermal efficiency), when vinasse BOD ranged from 1.06 to 3.12 lb/cu ft, respectively (7,000 to 50,000 mg/l).  The gas production per weight of BOD destroyed was 8.92 cu ft/lb, while the food to microorganism (F/M) was 31.03 lb BOD/lb cell mass. In addition, daily production of cellular mass ranged from 3,658 to 10,758 lb/day (for a yearly operation of 150 days) when vinasse BOD ranged from 1.06 to 3.12 lb/cu ft (7000 to 50,000 mg/l). The volume of the digester ranged from 1,048,836 to 440,857 cu ft (29,697 to 12,482 kl) when vinasse BOD ranged from 1.06 to 3.12 lb/cu ft (7,000 to 50,000 mg/l). Calculated data seems to indicate that the productivity ratio of methane-vinasse ranged from 5.11 to 15.03 cu ft of methane per cu ft of vinasse digested and that of methane-ethanol ranged from 61.31 to 180.32 cu ft of methane per cu ft of ethanol.


Improvement of Circulating Efficiency by Radially Impelling Stirrers in Vacuum Pans Operated in Horizontal Cascade Crystallizers, Martin Bruhns1, M. Grabowski2, J.P. Lindner3, P Pajonk1, K. Urbaniec2, Z. Wegrzynowski4 and K. Wolf1, 1 Pfeifer Langen KG, Köln, Germany; 2 Warsaw University of Technology, Poland; 3 Stelzer Rührtechnik GmbH, Warburg, Germany; 4 Pfeifer & Langen Polska SA, Gostyn, Poland

Since decades stirrers in vacuum pans are installed within the central downtake of the calandria. The so called "Kaplan type" are nowadays the standard stirrers in vacuum pans. In comparison to this standard type the performance of radially impelling stirrers installed below heating chambers of two vacuum pans at Sugar Factory Goslawice was investigated during the 2004 campaign. The two vacuum pans were operated continuously as the 3rd, respectively the 2nd stage of B (raw-sugar) and C (afterproduct) cascade crystallizers. The investigations included running each stirrer at three different values of the number of revolutions and measuring the power consumption of the stirrer drive while determining the heat transfer coefficient in the respective pan. In a similar manner, the performance of standard Kaplan stirrers installed in central tubes of the heating chambers of both pans was investigated.

In relation to Kaplan stirrers, the radially impelling stirrers made it possible to attain markedly higher heat transfer coefficients at lower values of the rotational speed. By comparing their power consumption at similar levels of the heat-transfer intensity, a comparison between the two stirrer types with respect to the circulating efficiency was also made. In B3 vacuum pan, the circulating efficiency of the radially impelling stirrer was higher than that of the Kaplan stirrer by a factor of 2.8. In C2 vacuum pan, the corresponding factor was 2.6.


Organic Sugar - Its Place in the World of Organic Products: Is There a Future?, Paul Caulkins, Corporate QA Manager, Imperial Sugar Company, Sugar Land, Texas, USA

Organic sugar is a growing market in North American and Europe, as is the entire category of organic food. This presentation will take a look into the world of Organic Products and its application to sugar will be discussed. An overview of current market trends with a focus on Organic Sugar and an update on the US market are included. Organic certification requirements as related to the growing and production of organic sugar will be reviewed. Some of the current popular Organic Sugar Products will demonstrated.


Mannitol as a Sensitive Indicator of Sugarcane Deterioration and Bacterial Contamination in Fuel Alcohol Production, Gillian Eggleston1, L. C. Basso2, H. Amorim3, S. C De Lima Paulillo2 and T. O. Basso 1 USDA-ARS-SRRC, c/o Agronomy Dept., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA, USA. 2Universadade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, 3Fermentec, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a very sensitive indicator of sugarcane deterioration that can predict processing problems. A rapid (4 to 7 min) enzymatic method has been developed to measure mannitol in juice pressed from consignments of sugarcane delivered to the factory. This screening tool will allow factory staff to rapidly know which consignments of cane will affect processing negatively or reject consignments that will cause unacceptable processing problems. This method can be easily performed using existing equipment in sugarcane factories, with mannitol being measured spectrophotometrically using mannitol dehydrogenase as the enzyme catalyst. The stability of the reagents, limited cane juice preparation, linearity, accuracy and precision are described. The method is highly specific for mannitol and was not affected by the presence of sucrose, glucose, fructose, or dextran. The current cost is only ~60 U.S. cents per analysis. Mannitol has also been proven to be an advantageous indicator of bacterial contamination - one of the main factors causing drops in fuel alcohol fermentation yields as well as yeast (Saccharomyces) flocculation and foaming problems. Compared to other indicators, mannitol is not produced by yeast cells, only contaminating bacteria (mostly some Lactobacillus strains) during fermentation; its concentration is directly associated with bacterial activity, and it can be measured easily. A strong correlation existed between mannitol formation and bacteria counts in sugarcane juice and molasses fermentations with induced bacterial contaminations.


Second Year of Results for the Application of Rendement Factors Concept to Predict Sucrose Losses to Molasses from Mediterranean Sugar Beet, Khalid Fares and Asma Baouch, University Cadi Ayyad, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Department of Biology, Marrakesh. Morocco.

In 2004, for the first time a new quality formula was established for Moroccan beet using the Rendement Concept of Burba and Harling (2003). During the campaign 2005, additional analyses of molasses, thick juices and cossettes, taken over a period of 40 days from the same Moroccan sugar factory were carried out to verify the data and the formula. The formula for 2005 is structurally similar to the formula from 2004. The only variation observed concerns the ratio Total soluble nitrogen - alpha amino nitrogen. The Moroccan Rendement Formula, established over two campaigns, allows the assessment of the relative technical beet quality based on standard tare house analyses (K, Na, amino-N). This concept avoids the effort to produce thick juices or molasses in the pilot plant.


The Potential of Vinasse, Mary An Godshall, Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

The production of ethanol from cane molasses has provided many benefits to the sugar industry. However, disposal of the vinasse that remains after distillation constitutes a large environmental challenge. From 10 to 15 tons of vinasse is produced for every ton of alcohol. It is high in potassium, BOD and COD and lacks valuable constituents that other types of vinasse have, such as those from wine, beets and corn. This talk will discuss the various uses for vinasse and will highlight what is done in China, India and Brazil. The composition of vinasse will be outlined. Some newer ideas on disposal include anaerobic digestion, bio-composting, and on-site incineration as an additional fuel source. Some work done with Colombian vinasse will be highlighted.


Filter Clogging Material in Raw and White Cane Sugar, Mary An Godshall1, Wilton Goynes2, Marianne McKee1 and Ron Triche1  1Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, LA; 2Southern Regional Research Center, USDA, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Raw and refined sugar solutions were sequentially filtered on Millipore membranes with different pore sizes, ranging from 60μ to 0.45μ, and the material that was trapped on the membrane surfaces was examined by electron microscopy. The results showed that filter clogging material was caught on membranes with a 1.2μ pore size or smaller. In the case of raw sugar solutions, membranes visually appeared to be covered with a uniform coat of light brown color; white sugar solutions may or may not have a small amount of color. Microscopic examination revealed an amorphous, gel-like material coating the membrane and partially embedded in it, completely covering all the pores. It is speculated that this material contributes both color and turbidity during sugar processing and may arise from highly degraded bagacillo. Filtration studies showed that most refined cane sugar solutions will clog a 0.45μ pore-size membrane before a solution containing 100 g of sugar can be completely filtered. Enzyme studies showed that enzymes associated with cellulose and hemicellulose degradation improved filtration of raw sugar solutions. Hydrolysis and gas chromatographic examination of the filter-clogging material showed a polysaccharide-rich component that was high in mannose and glucose, indicating a different composition from the soluble indigenous cell wall polysaccharide of cane. The material was also shown to coat ion exchange resin beads.


Reduction of Processing Aids: Recent Developments Within AGRANA/Zuckerforschung Tulln, Walter Hein, Zuckerforschung Tulln Gesellschaft m.b.H., Tulln, Austria

The production of sugar from sugar beet is increasingly under pressure by efforts to minimize production costs. A non-negligible share of these production costs account for processing aids. The present work reports on developments at Zuckerforschung Tulln Ges.m.b.H for savings of processing aids in three different areas.

The first part deals with measures to minimize the demand of antifoaming agents. Besides rather simple structural measures and special foam-sensors, a so-called AFO - Anti Foam Optimizer - is discussed in detail. This device, which is installed within a bypass, calculates the optimal demand and dosage of antifoaming agents for various juices.

The second apparatus labelled LISA - Lime Salts Analyser - determines the residual calcium-content in juices in a very simple but robust and reliable way. This apparatus also performs within a bypass and its operational principle is based on the insolubility of calcium-soaps. It enables optimal dosages of alkalising medium as well as scale inhibitors.

The third device was originally designed as a computer program called LIMOS - Lime Optimization System. It calculates the necessary minimum amount of milk of lime and performs its dosage on the basis of operational characteristics like raw juice amount and filter pressure. At the beginning it was only deployable in factories which use filter stations for carbonation slurry concentration. Through integration of specially constructed mini-filters a new version for factories operating with clarifiers is now available.

Besides detailed description of these apparatuses and their operating mode, information on successful applications not only within but also outside AGRANA are reported.


Color Reduction in Sugar House Operation, Reinhold Hempleman, BMA AG, Braunschweig, Germany

The production of white sugar with a maximum color of 45 IU is more and more gaining in economic importance. The main reasons for this are the increasing share of so-called industrial sugar - sugar that is industrially processed further - and the growing quality demands for private consumption, in particular caused by large-quantity buyers like supermarket chains.

So far, the direct production of white sugar from the thick juice obtained is state of the art only in the beet processing industry with a sufficient beet quality. However, in the cane processing industry, this step is still in a stage of development. The main starting point for development is the improvement of the juice quality. Another possibility to reduce the sugar color is to optimize the conditions for crystallization.

A thorough examination of the color development in the sugar house and the crystallized sugar mass can be used to illustrate the various influences of different process schemes on the sugar quality produced.

The influencing factors are explained by means of several examples, and optimized process schemes for crystallization are introduced.


Quality Improvement of Raw Sugar - Working with Your Supplier, Osamah Hikmat, Al Khaleej Sugar , Dubai / UAE, and Danilo Totsi Oliveira, Copersucar , Brazil

Raw Sugar quality is a governing factor controlling the processes in any sugar refinery. For a given raw sugar, levels of color, turbidity, ash, starch, dextran, sulfite and insoluble matter are major quality parameters affecting the process of refining, technically and economically, positively at their low levels and negatively at high levels. In spite of many new developments achieved in sugar refining technologies, some refiners are interested in having superior quality raw sugar to cope with their developing programs adapted in their refineries.

Removing raw sugar impurities is easier in the sugar mill than in the sugar refinery. In the cane sugar mill, sugar cane is the raw material to produce raw sugar, and following good manufacturing practices throughout the mill is strongly recommended; implementing proper monitoring and management systems for activities concerning sugar cane with respect to maturity , harvesting , transporting fresh healthy cane, cane washing, crushing and finally processing high purity raw juice with selected way of clarification , concentration and sugar crystalization, all are the best contributors to have high quality raw sugar. For a raw sugar producer, a good understanding of the refiner's needs and working to fulfill them economically by following suitable programs for quality improvement mutually agreed by both parties provides both parties a lot of benefits .

Al Khaleej Sugar Company, Dubai - UAE, as a refiner, has a successful arrangement with Copersucar, Brazil, their major supplier of raw. Since the year 2000 they have worked together and hit the set of targets for improving the quality of VHP (Very High Polarization ) raw sugar appreciably and produce VVHP ( Very Very High Polarization ) raw sugar economically , VVHP Raw Sugar is giving many valuable impacts on Al Khaleej Refinery. This paper describes briefly the program for improving raw sugar quality and its successful application in sugar mills belonging to Copersucar.



Engineered Equipment Symmetries Force Process Efficiencies, Mike Kearney, Amalgamated Research Inc., Twin Falls, Idaho, USA.

Processing equipment designed using principles of symmetry can have significant effects upon system size, energy use and efficiency. While symmetric structures, such as fractals, can lead to operational efficiencies when used as a retro-fit to existing equipment, more dramatic benefits can be obtained by specifically designing process equipment around these and other symmetric structures.

Many processes operate in an inhomogeneous manner. This means there is a wide spread in the distribution of a process characteristic such as pressure, temperature, concentration, eddy size, bubble size, etc. Subsequently, there exists a requirement for large equipment, excessive energy to run the process and the presence of general inefficiencies. For example, clarifiers can exhibit asymmetry due to large entering flows and subsequent formation of a variety of eddy sizes; ion exchange and chromatography can exhibit asymmetry due to poor distribution and collection; mixed reaction tanks exhibit asymmetry with conditions dependent upon the location of fluid in relation to an impeller. All of these asymmetries are harmful.

There appears to be a general connection between equipment symmetry and process efficiency. Symmetry implies equivalency and therefore process homogeneity. Symmetries properly designed into equipment can force homogeneity upon a process and therefore reduce the aforementioned problems.

Using principles of symmetry leads to equipment quite different in size, configuration and appearance compared with conventional counterparts.

An example of using processing equipment designed to accommodate symmetries is a new cane raw sugar refining process based on chromatography. The process benefits from two new types of symmetric column design and two types of symmetric fractals.


Determination of Extraneous Matter and its Effects on Colombian Sugar Production, Jesús E. Larrahondo, Carlos A. Viveros, Carols O. Briceño, Cenitcaña, Cali, Colombia

Extraneous matter content is one of the factors of great importance associated with the harvesting, loading and transport of sugarcane from the field to the mill. Extensive research conducted in different regions of the world has shown that extraneous matter affects both production and the quality of the end product (sugar). Consequently, one of the objectives proposed by the Colombian agroindustry is the need to have evaluation systems that guarantee the rapid and reliable determination of extraneous matter that enters a mill and to identify the best harvesting options, especially for green (i.e., nonburned) cane and to reduce the content of extraneous matter in the cane in the field or delivered to the mill. The implementation of sampling systems and control of extraneous matter by means of mechanized core sampling or the manual cleaning of samples obtained at a station for the postharvest evaluation of cane were evaluated for different harvesting methods. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that harvesting sugarcane with the manually cut, clean green cane procedure (System 1) contributed to reducing the levels of extraneous matter in the cane for milling and to increasing sugar yields. The possibility of using NIR (near infrared spectroscopy) to quantify extraneous matter incorporated in the cane during its cutting, loading, transporting and delivery t the mill is being explored in conjunction with a pilot mill in the Cauca Valley.


Alicyclobacillus sp.: A Growing Concern for Manufacturers of Shelf-Stable, High-Acid, Non-Carbonated Beverages, Kathleen A. Lawlor, Ph.D., PepsiCo, Inc., Valhalla, New York, USA

Alicyclobacillus (ACB) species are thermoacidophilic sporeforming bacteria of increasing concern to the beverage industry, because of their ability to survive conventional pasteurization treatments and germinate/grow in hot-filled and aseptically processed high-acid beverages, without producing overt signs of spoilage. ACBs are widely distributed in nature, and can be found in a variety of raw agricultural commodities, as well as in the food and beverage ingredients derived from them. At particular risk to shelf-stable, high-acid, non-carbonated beverages are ingredients whose starting materials are harvested in direct or close contact with soil, such as fruit juices, teas, herbs, and sweeteners. This presentation will address the sources and significance of ACBs in sweeteners, and provide an overview of the control strategies needed to minimize finished beverage ACB spoilage risk.


Simulated Multiple Effect Evaporation of Clarified and Decolorized Sugarcane Juices and Accelerated Storage Tests of the Syrups: Evolution of Color and the Behavior of Carbohydrates and Related Compounds, Lee R. Madsen II, LSU AgCenter; Audubon Sugar Institute, St. Gabriel, Louisiana, USA

Several adjuvants were evaluated for potential to either promote or inhibit the formation of color. It was noted during preliminary tests that mixed dithiocarbamate (mDTC) mill biocide can promote non-enzymic color formation. It is known that sodium bisulfite (NaBS) will inhibit browning, but residual sulfite in sugar is undesirable. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a modified amino acid containing a sulfhydryl moiety was tested as an FDA approved alternative.

Cleaned, whole stalk sugarcane was crushed using a Farrell 3-roll mill. The juice was clarified by hot-liming and back-adjusted to pH 7.0 using H3PO4. The mud was coagulated via the addition of 5 mg/kg conventional anionic flocculant. The juice was filtered, after addition of bagacillo, through a fine screen. The result was a fine sparkling light yellow clarified juice. This juice was split into two portions.

The first portion was split 5 ways. The first was left as-is (control) the second and third were treated with mDTC at 20 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, on dry solids (DS), the fourth, with NAC at 94 mg/kg DS, and the fifth was treated with 60 mg/kg DS of NaBS. The five samples were subjected to a multiple-effect evaporator simulation (MEES) whereby the juice was brought to 24% DS at ambient pressure, then under vacuum to 50 and 67% DS at 85 and 65°C, respectively.

The second portion was decolorized at 75°C via passage at two bed volumes per hour through carbon and a mixed bed ion exchanger. The resulting sparkling clear (white) liquid was subjected to the same five treatments and an identical MEES.

Syrups from both clarified and decolorized juices were subject to an accelerated storage test (AST) whereby they were sealed and incubated at 95°C for 8hr with periodic sampling.

MEES and AST products were assayed for refractometer Brix, pH, sugars, levulinic and formic acids via high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with differential refractive index detection, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde via HPLC with diode array detection, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. Fractions were taken from the final MEES syrups; these were subject to fractionation and several proto-colorants were tentatively identified via gas chromatography with mass-selective detection.

For clarified juice, there was very little if any change in color across the MEES. In several of the cases, the color increased slightly across the 1st and 2nd "effects" and decreased across the 3rd. Decolorized juices were less stable, mDTC applied as cited exhibited +45, and +101% of the color formed relative to the control. Samples made to contain NaC or NaBS exhibited an inhibition of color formation that amounts to -24 and -56%, respectively, of the color formed in the control. The most significant increase in color in all cases occurred across the first "effect".

AST results of the different MEES syrups were interesting. After incubation, the decolorized juices all increased in color, but the effects were different from those in the MEES, with mDTC levels 1 and 2 registering color increases of only 86.2 and 75.1%, NaC 73.2%, and NaBS 72.34% of the control.

The tentatively identified compounds found conformed to that which is known for caramel, including maltol isomers, HMF, and other furanoid derivatives.


Effect of Enzymes on Color, Turbidity and Total Polysaccharides in Sugarcane and Sugarbeet Juice, Marianne McKee, Sara Moore, Ron Triche and Mary An Godshall, Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

In sugar processing, low color is an important quality requirement for sugar manufacturers and consumers. Sucrose produced from either sugarcane or sugarbeet begins the isolation process in a raw juice that has high color and polysaccharide content, and many processing steps are required to clarify and decolorize the solution to obtain the final white sugar product. In this research, we examined the effect of targeted enzymes on reducing the color and polysaccharide concentration in raw cane and beet juices. The juices were treated with 28 commercially available enzymes and monitored for color, turbidity, and total polysaccharide content. For sugarcane juice, enzymes with hemicellulase, cellulase, xylanase and glucosidase activity were the most effective against color and/or polysaccharides. Hemicellulase, pectinase, xylanase, and glucanase were active against color and/or polysaccharides in beet diffusion systems.


Optical Management of Photosynthesis to Increase Efficiency of Hydrogen Production from Sugar-Processing Waste Water, Matsunori Nara, Tokyo University of Science, Suwa (5000-1 Toyohira, Chino, Nagano JAPAN)

In sugar processing, during the conversion of molasses into useful materials such as ethanol and feed, a lot of waste water with a high organic loading is discharged. Conventionally, simple methods, such as multi-stage lagoon treatment, are used to treat these waste waters. However, open air treatments generate very unpleasant odors, which negatively impact the surrounding environment. Furthermore, high concentrations of methane, carbon dioxide, and other gases are emitted into the atmosphere by lagoon treatment, which can influence global warming.

In view of this situation, experiments to generate hydrogen gas, i.e., hydrogen energy, using photosynthesizing bacteria, were undertaken to process the high organic waste water discharged from sugar processing. When the activated photosynthesizing method developed by this research raises the underwater transmissivity of sunlight energy compared with the conventional method, the point which reinforced the optical energy which photosynthesis bacteria receive is the feature. Thereby, the hydrogen manufacturing efficiency of the system was able to be raised. The reinforcement method of optical energy was improvement in the optical use efficiency by development of a condensing new board and use of underwater light scattering material. It became possible by developing new light scattering material especially to maintain the optical intensity of the red wavelength band which photosynthesis bacteria use, and a near-infrared domain on a high level. In laboratory scale experiments, red non-sulfur photosynthesis bacteria (from the Rhodospirillaceae Family) were chosen as photosynthesis bacteria, and the possibility of starting the improvement in hydrogen gas manufacturing efficiency and utilization of a system was examined. Although the hydrogen gas obtained by experiment was 10 - 40% of theoretical, the validity of the photoactivating method was confirmed by the experiment when compared with the conventional lagooning method. A simulation experimental showed that the hydrogen gas process increased costs 10 to 20% compared to the lagoon treatment, but it also showed a decreased environmental impact in the range from one half to one quarter. Further scaled up experiments and improved design parameters are expected to show that the hydrogen conversion efficiency by the photoactivation method can be made in a positive process.


The Direct Production of White Sugar in a Cane Sugar Mill, P.W. Rein, L.S.M. Bento and R. Cortes, Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU Agricultural Center, St. Gabriel, Louisiana, USA

A new process for the production of white sugar in a cane sugar mill has been developed. It has been tested in the laboratory and during two seasons on a small scale in a Louisiana sugar mill. The process does not require membrane separation and involves adsorption of color and other impurities using granular activated carbon and ion exchange resins. The paper describes laboratory work to characterize the adsorption properties and kinetics, a comparison with pilot plant data and the results of pilot plant color incorporation trials in product sugar.


Current Status of Biotechnology in Sugarbeet and Sugarcane, Dr. Charley Richard, C. Richard & Associates LLC/Sugar Journal, New Orleans, LA, and Nicholls State University, Thibodaux, Louisiana, USA

Plant biotechnology in sugar crops can simply be described as techniques that use living cells of organisms or parts of those cells with a practical goal of producing plants and services that benefit sugarcane and sugarbeet industries. This paper describes the current use of biotechnology in cane and beet crops of the international sugar industry.

Improved sugarcane and sugarbeet varieties have traditionally been developed using conventional sexual methods of plant breeding. Technologies developed since 1980 can now be used to enhance existing breeding efforts by developing services to enhance sugar production and genetically engineered plants which are best referred to as biotech plants. The immediate goals for biotech crop utilization would be to improve profitability, improve sugar quality, reduce the environmental impact of crop production, and develop alternate products from each crop. Specific objectives for biotech sugar crops include herbicide resistance, pest resistance (insects and diseases), higher sugar content, stress tolerance, alternate products and other characteristics specific to each crop. Experimental sugarcane varieties have been developed and are currently being tested in several industries although no commercialization has moved forward to date. Biotech sugarbeets have cleared all government regulations in the U.S. and commercialization is expected by 2008. Numerous organizations have been involved in cane and beet industries to undertake the research and regulatory issues that need to be achieved in order to proceed with biotech utilization on a commercial scale. The future for biotech in sugarbeets appears to be of considerable economic potential and as simple as other seed propagated crops since the distribution and sale of biotech seed material is easily controlled. The future for sugarcane also has great potential but is more complicated since it is a vegetatively propagated plant and biotech seed cane can be more difficult to manage. Herbicide tolerant plants appear to be the most readily usable characteristic for both sugarcane and sugarbeet crops. Alternate product development, especially in sugarcane with its high biomass potential, also seems particular promising for the future. Marketing of sugar produced from biotech sugarbeet and sugarcane plants had been considered a major obstacle in the past but considerable progress has been made toward its utilization in the market place.


Using Volumetric Growth Rates to Characterize Sucrose Crystallization, P. Martins and F. Rocha, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

The phenomenon of size-dependent growth is investigated from a theoretical and an experimental point of view, using the growth rates of sucrose measured in a laboratory batch crystallizer at 40 ºC. A new formalism is proposed, where crystal growth rates are expressed in terms of mass deposition per time and crystal volume units. As expected by the recently introduced “spiral nucleation model”, this alternative definition is found to be size-independent over the considered supersaturation range. At same time, the conventional overall growth rate expressed per time and surface area units is found to be linearly dependent on crystal size. Besides being theoretically consistent, the volumetric growth rate concept is of great practical interest since crystal growth kinetics can be calculated in situations of unknown crystal number and size. The two-way effect of crystal size on mass transfer rates and on the integration kinetics is investigated by measuring the sucrose dissolution rates under reciprocal conditions of the growth experiments. Both effects are adequately described by combining a well-established diffusion-integration model and the spiral nucleation mechanism.


The Sugar Scene in Europe from the Customer’s Perspective, Brian Salisbury, Coca Cola, Brussels, Belgium

Since 1968, the sugar industry in Europe has been governed by the EU Sugar Regime, a set of complex regulations that manage supply and demand for sugar within the countries of the European Union. The Regime controls national production quotas and the price of sugar which is sold in the EU and supports export of sugar to non-EU countries. It also establishes production quotas of HFSS produced in the EU.

With the expansion of the European Union to 25 countries, external pressure from the WTO and other sugar producing countries, and internal pressure particularly from sugar users, for reform of the regime, the EU are implementing extensive reforms to the European sugar business. The proposals have raised varying levels of objection or support from growers, producers and users, but the Sugar Regime reform will have far reaching effects in years to come.

This presentation outlines the background, current proposals and the impact that reform may have on the food and beverage industry as well as the sweetener industry in the years to come.


Utilization of NIR Spectroscopy for Factory Control, Brian E. White, Luz S. Polanco and Chardcie Verrett, Audubon Sugar Institute, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, St. Gabriel, Louisiana, USA

NIR spectroscopy is an analytical technique that has been expanding into many industries for both analytical and control purposes. NIR is used widely in the food processing and grain industries throughout the world. The sugar industries in Australia, South America and Florida are currently using NIR for factory control and/or cane payment. NIR can provide analytical results faster than conventional analyses and can be used as a laboratory instrument or online. The main benefits of NIR are lower labor costs and more consistent analytical results.

Audubon Sugar Institute and Enterprise Factory worked together to perform a proper evaluation in a factory laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of a Foss NIR 5000 beverage analyzer for factory control in Louisiana. NIR proved to be at least as accurate as the factory laboratory and capable of providing multiple constituent analyses with one scan.

Audubon personnel conducted the calibrations and evaluated the feasibility of combining sample spectra in order to both reduce the number of calibrations and to increase the data range to make the calibrations more reliable for varying samples. Comparisons of the laboratory data and the NIRS data will be presented as well as the calibration comparisons. All data used in the calibrations were obtained from the Enterprise Factory Laboratory. A final molasses calibration that included HPLC sugars, conductivity ash, and vacuum oven dry solids was the only exception. The transfer of calibration data from one NIRS to another is one of the challenges of this technology. The final molasses calibration was utilized, but required several bias and slope adjustments using factory data. 



Optimisation of Natural Biocides in Beet and Cane Production,  Dr. David Beddie, Beta TecHop Products, Worcestershire, England

Following on from their success in the sugar beet industry, natural biocides such as BetaStab®10 A have been optimized for use in cane mills so they are a cost effective alternative to standard chemical biocides. Leuconostoc species are the main bacteria contamination in cane mills resulting in dextran formation and sugar loss. These natural biocides are fast acting and immediately stop the growth of problem bacteria, thus minimizing sugar losses and processing difficulties in the mill. Furthermore these naturally derived products can be used in ethanol production.


DRD (Dedini Direct Refined) - Revolutionary Process for the Production of Refined SugarF.C. Boscariol, Dedini S/A Industrias de Base, Piracicaba, Brazil 

The Dedini Direct Refined (DRD) process is a new technology for obtaining direct refined sugar with ICUMSA color 45.  It is divided into 3 modules: 1st- New juice clarification, 2nd- New system of syrup decolorization, and 3rd- Adequacy of the boiling/crystallization/ traditional centrifugation systems with adjustments in equipment and process flow.  The DRD process may be supplied complete (in three modules), or partially, by making use of the existing facilities. The process allows raw and VHP sugar production, besides refined sugar, providing higher operational, commercial and financial flexibility to the mill. Others features of the new process are smaller facilities, lower initial investment and the complete processing is carried out in one plant only, with lower labor requirements (not separate plants anymore). The DRD process allows reduction of the production cost, because additional handling (packing, stacking, transportation, de-packing, etc) isn’t required for further dissolution. In this way, DRD – Dedini Direct Refined – is the process that is going to revolutionize refined sugar production.


BIOSUGAR and BIOCLIN: A Natural Solution for Cane Juice Clarification and Disinfection, Francisco Fava, R&D Head, Seta - S/A Extrativa Tanino de AćaciaEstância Velha, Brazil

A new technology based on modified vegetable extracts is offered as an alternative for juice clarification with several other benefits in sugar processing such as biological control, sulfur elimination and massecuite viscosity decrease, allowing a higher yield and productivity.

BIOSUGAR's action mechanisms as color precursor elimination, bacterial action slowdown and complexation of metals are fully described.

A new way of mill preventive disinfection is shown with BIOCLIN. This sanitizing agent can keep mills free from gum-forming bacterial colonies by developing a protective layer over the surface of equipment that inhibits bacterial deposition, providing safe and environmentally friendly protection.


Bagacillo Removal Using a Specially Designed Gyro - Rotary Vibroscreen to Improve Sugar Quality, Abdul Alim1 , A.K. Jain 2 and V. M. Kulkarni 3  1 Threestar Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd., E - 109 Bulandshar Road Industrial Area, Gaziabad, NCR Delhi 120 001, 2 Namokar Enterprises, D-53, Surajmal Vihar, New Delhi 110092, 3 VM Biotech, 1004, Siddharth Towers (2), 12/3B Sangam Press Rd, Kothrud, Pune, India

Modification in cane preparation devices like the shredder / fiberizor have improved the preparation index (PI) and thus increase extraction at mills. However, it increases the bagacillo levels in mixed juice. Bagacillo releases coloring matter at high temperature, especially after liming. This rise in color due to bagacillo can be avoided or reduced by removing bagacillo from mixed juice with the help of a proper screening device - the Vibroscreen. This device can be called as pre-clarification station and will help add value to "CANE SUGAR" by way of improvement in terms of ICUMSA color, lowering the cost of production, and increasing the profitability of the sugar industry.


Pesticide Residue Analysis of Sugar Using GC/MS, Vasudha Keskar and Sai Keskar, Maarc Labs Pvt. Ltd., Plot No. 1&2, Gat No.27, Nanded Phate, Sinhagad Road, 411041 Pune, India.

The beverage industry in India was recently subjected to severe scrutiny for the presence of residual pesticides in finished products.  It was necessary to investigate the probable source of the residues, if present. As water and sugar are the major ingredients of beverages, these two important raw materials were targeted for the pre-processing analysis.

For pesticide residue testing EPA methods are usually employed.  However as these methods are basically developed for water and as sugar is a complex matrix, it is necessary to validate these methods.  On the basis of the requirements of the Bureau of Indian Standards and beverage companies, 35 pesticides were selected for the study, which included organochlorine & organophosphorus pesticides.  NIST traceable standards of these pesticides were spiked in 7 replicates of a single sugar sample, preanalyzed and confirmed for absence of any pesticides.  Spiking was done at LOQ, 0.1 ppm and a detailed recovery study was made.

Sample preparation and cleanup was done using solid phase extraction on a C-18 cartridge.  Here de-sugarization of the cartridge is very critical for which a special indicator was developed to detect traces of sugar.  The final concentrate was injected to the GC/MS system, on all the three ionization modes viz.  MS Full scan, Selective Ion Storage (SIS), and the MS/MS mode.

The detailed recovery data for all the 35 pesticides was generated which included – Method Detection Limit, method accuracy as % recovery and repeatability.  All the procedures and validation data were audited by NABL as per requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and now Maarc Laboratories is accredited for testing pesticide residues from sugar and sugar syrup at 0.1 ppb detection limit.




Advanced Monitoring System (AMS) for Process Control, Pedro Avram-Waganoff, Dr. Boris Morgenrothg, Stefan Pfau, and Björn Köllmann, IPRO Industrieprojekt, GmbH, Celler Str. 67, 38114 Braunschweig, Germany

During the last decades, automation systems, process control systems, process and laboratory information systems as well as management information systems have been introduced to the sugar industry and today have been developed to a high standard. These tools offer the advantage of much improved data availability/accessibility and a tremendous decrease in labour costs as well as improving factory operations. The "missing link" between the current data & information architecture and the implementation of expert systems is a consistent on-line mass and energy balance of sugar factories and refineries. The aim of the Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) developed by IPRO Industrieprojekt GmbH & Sugars International LLC is to provide an "on-line" mass, energy and colour balance of a sugar refinery and to close the information gap in order to implement expert systems.


Sugarcane Harvesting and Crushing Delay: Aconitic Acid Ratio as a Physiological Aging Indicator, Laurent Corcodel 1, Serge Hoareau 1, William Hoareau 1, Jean Yves Gonthier 2, Stéphanie Damour 2, 1 CERF, Sainte Clotilde Cedex, Isle de Reunion, France; 2 Sucrerie de Bois Rouge, Reunion Island – France

Experiments on sugarcane deterioration were done to improve harvesting and crushing delay efficiency. Results highlight important losses for farmer and millers. The aim is to encourage farmers to deliver fresh sugarcane to the mill and to find an indicator for harvested sugarcane age. In deterioration trials, time after harvest is well correlated with a new interesting indicator: Aconitic Acid ratio (Cis Aconitic / Trans Aconitic). In fact, after harvesting, this ratio increases while juice purity drops. In weekly factory mixed juice, aconitic acid ratio is quite constant but the ratio increases under particular conditions (long mill break down, strike, end of seasons…) Cross checking between the ratio in deterioration experiments and the ratio in mixed juice could indicate the time after harvesting of the sugarcane crushed in the mill.


Trials and Tribulations of Testing an Organic Flocculant for Colour Removal, Stephen B Davis, Barbara M Schoonees and Janice Dewar, Sugar Milling Research Institute, c/o University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

The SMRI has long been involved with research into new and cost-effective chemicals and methods for reducing the colour of juices and syrups, and hence raw sugar, in South African sugar mills. This has been driven by the relatively high colours of South African cane varieties, the well-known fact that higher juice colours are produced by cane diffusers than by milling tandems, and the general improvement in sugar quality, particularly with respect to colour, in the world market.

Recently, the SMRI has been testing an organic-based flocculant, previously untested in South Africa, that is claimed by the manufacturers to deliver great benefits in terms of colour and polysaccharide reduction during clarification. A number of laboratory trials were undertaken, with the first delivering such promising results that a short factory trial was done at the end of the season at a South African factory. However, all subsequent trials delivered very disappointing results, despite a range of different conditions being tried.

This paper discusses the trials undertaken and the results achieved, and some of the difficulties encountered in undertaking such trials and interpreting the results achieved. In particular, the issue of whether to assess results in terms of percentage colour removal or number of colour units removed is discussed, as it is very pertinent when dealing with juices of widely differing colours.


Optimization of the Application of α-Amylases in Raw Sugar Manufacture, Gillian Eggleston1, Belisario Montes2, Adrian Monge3 and David Stewart2  1 USDA-ARS-SRRC, c/o Agronomy Dept., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, 2 Alma Plantation LLC, Lakeland, Louisiana, USA, 3 Cora Texas factory, White Castle, Louisiana, USA

In recent years there have been warnings by some U.S. refineries that there will be a penalty for starch if starch concentrations in raw sugar are not controlled. Although there have been numerous research and development efforts to engineer tailor-made processing properties of α-amylases, particularly high temperature (HT) stability and low calcium requirements for large markets, i.e. high fructose corn syrup industry, this has not occurred for the much smaller sugar industry market. Most commercial α-amylases used by the sugar industry have intermediary temperature stability (up to 85 C [185 F] with an optimum of ~70 C [158 F]) produced from Bacillus subtilis.

There is neither a uniform/standard method to measure the activity of α-amylases in the sugar industry, nor a regulatory body to issue or regulate standard activity methods and units for any commercial enzymes. A method incorporating PhadebusTM blue starch tablets was modified to simulate conditions in typical last evaporator bodies, i.e., pH 6.4 and 65.5 C (150 F), where α-amylases are mostly applied. Similar to dextranases applied in the U.S. sugar industry, a wide range of activities also existed for α-amylases. There was an approximate 9-fold difference in activities (59.0 to 545.3 KNU/ml) that did not reflect their comparative unit costs, i.e., activity per U.S. dollar only differed 4-fold and ranged from 40.7 to 161.8 KNU/ml/$. α-Amylase optimization trials in the last evaporator bodies at three factories were conducted in the 2005 Louisiana processing season. Factory 1 typically applied 3.6 ppm/cane wt. of (undiluted) B. subtilis α-amylase with low activity (59 KNU/ml) for an average starch breakdown of 6.6% that only increased to 11.4% at a 7.2 ppm dosage. Very similar disappointing results occurred at Factory 3. At Factory 2, the same enzyme (59 KNU/ml) at a greater dosage of 10 ppm (undiluted) gave an aerage. starch breakdown of 25.4% that only slightly increased to 28.5% at 20 ppm. The application of a B. subtilis α-amylase of much higher activity (545.3 KNU/ml) at 2 ppm gave an average breakdown of 26.7%, but only increased to 29.6% at 5 ppm because of low contact between enzyme (α-amylase) and substrate (starch). The application of the enzyme as a working solution diluted 3-fold in water at the factory improved contact and greatly improved starch breakdown to 31.9% and 42.0% at 2 and 5 ppm, respectively, and is more cost-effective than adding the α-amylase undiluted. There is concern about the use of enhanced HT stability (up to 95 C) of α-amylases from genetically modified Bacilli licheniformis and B. stearothermophilus, developed for much larger markets than the sugar industry, and possible carry-over or residual activity in raw and refined sugars, and food products, which is discussed.


Sugarcane Green and Brown, Dried Trash Effects on Processing, Gillian Eggleston1, Ryan Viator2 and Michael Grisham2  1 USDA-ARS-SRRC, c/o Agronomy Dept., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, 2 USDA-ARS-SRRC Sugarcane Research Unit, Houma, Louisiana, USA

Currently, there is a dramatic shift world-wide from the harvesting of burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane. Sugarcane burning has often been used to remove extraneous matter or trash, i.e., leaves and plant tops, but pressure from the public and environmental agencies is mounting to ban open field burning, especially near urban areas. In the U.S., burning has been restricted, particularly in non-urban areas through self-imposed burn management programs, and is expected to be curtailed in the next few years. In other countries, burning is no longer permitted. As a consequence, even more unburnt sugarcane with extra impurities is expected to be delivered to factories, putting added burdens on processors to deal with and/or remove them during processing. The effect of changing to "green sugarcane" harvesting on processing has not been properly or fully characterized and, therefore, very few solutions to minimize the detrimental processing effects of trash have been developed or implemented. This paper reports the results of studies on the processing quality of juice from different tissues of two commercial Louisiana varieties: LCP 85-384 and HoCP 96-540. The effect of applying a chemical ripener on different tissues of the plant was also investigated. Juice was extracted from lower stalk (LS), middle stalk (MS), growing point region (GPR), green leaves (GL), and brown leaves (BL), 27 and 53 days after PoladoTM ripener application. Generally, with PoladoTM treatment there is more BL than with no treatment, and after PoladoTM addition variety LCP 85-384, delivers more BL to the factory than variety HoCP 96-540, as BL adhere more tightly to its stalk. Starch was surprisingly discovered in the BL of both varieties indicating that brown, senescing leaves are still metabolically active and store starch and are not necessarily "dead." Other processing properties of the samples, including clarification and thermal properties, are also discussed. The effect of different percentages (up to 25% by weight) of green (GT) and brown, dried trash (BT) on juice quality of variety LCP 85-384 are also reported. The pH and oBrix of the juices did not significantly change with increasing amounts of GT, but increased when BT was added at the 25% level. The differences in oBrix indicate that brown trash is contributing more to the addition of soluble solid impurities such as polysaccharides (also indicated by higher amounts of starch) that have a negative impact on processing. Fiber amounts increased when both types of trash were added, but significantly more with BT.


Food Trends for a New Century, Mary An Godshall, Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

The last decade has witnessed a growing trend in the largest sugar companies worldwide have increasingly become ingredient companies. While in many cases, sugar remains the main business focus, acquisition of ingredient manufacturing companies continues to widen the portfolio of many sugar companies. With that in mind, it seemed worthwhile to consider some emerging food trends that impact ingredient companies. Six major areas driving changes in the food industry were identified : Environmental Issues; Fears and Controversies; New Technologies; Consumer Trends; Functional Foods; and By-Product Value. Current examples that illustrate each category will be illustrated.


The Expanding World of Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Sweeteners, Mary An Godshall, Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

The market for sweeteners is estimated to grow at about 8.3 percent per year up to 2008. This growth is fueled in large part by rising health concerns about diet and obesity. The sweetener industry is composed of a complex and sometimes confusing array of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners, which includes lower intensity sweeteners and very high intensity sweeteners. Besides the traditional carbohydrate sweeteners, sucrose, glucose and fructose, there are numerous sugar alcohols, new sugars, such as tagatose, isomaltulose, palatinose, and at least one new very high intensity sweetener, Neotame, 8000 times sweeter than sucrose. The latest trend in sweeteners is the production of blends, a combination of nutritive and non-nutritive sweetener ingredients designed to produce the desired sweet taste, lower calories and functionality. This presentation will provide an outline of the different types of approved sweeteners on the market, their relative sweetness, functionality, and will discuss some of the new commercial blends.


Laboratory Studies on Action of Polyaluminum Coagulants in Cane and Beet Juice, Mary An Godshall, Marianne McKee, Ron Triche and Sara Moore, Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Aluminum-based compounds have a long history of use in purification and color removal in water purification and other industries. Aluminum sulfate and polyaluminum chloride are the primary chemicals used to treat drinking water. Alum (aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate) and polyaluminum sulfate are likewise primary chemicals used to prepare potable water. Aluminum chlorohydrate is used around the world as an alternative to lead clarification in polarization. A report on the potential of aluminum compounds for raw sugar decolorizing was published in 1999.

SPRI conducted a series of laboratory investigations with five commercial polyaluminum coagulants used in water treatment. Two were composed of only aluminum compounds and three were a blend of cationic aluminum polymers with polyquaternaryamine. All showed a dramatic increase in the ability to remove color, turbidity and polysaccharides from cane juice relative to traditional lime clarification. Similar studies on beet juice showed less effect.

A mill experiment was carried out in late 2005, using one of the commercial polyaluminum coagulants. Results showed improvements in removal of turbidity, color and ash, and an increase in pH, when compared to traditional clarification. Polysaccharide concentration was not improved. Analysis of treated samples showed that there was no carryover of aluminum in the clarified juice. These preliminary results suggest the potential for polyaluminum coagulants in juice clarification, with need to optimize the point of addition.


Laboratory Studies on the Use of Magnesium Compounds and Soda Ash in Cane Juice Clarification, Mary An Godshall, Marianne McKee, Ron Triche and Sara Moore, Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

The use of magnesium compounds in clarification, either as a replacement for lime or as an adjunct to lime, has been considered in the sugar industry. In a series of laboratory experiments, lime, magnesium oxide, dolohydrate, dolomitic quicklime, soda ash, and combinations with soda ash were examined for their effect on turbidity, color, polysaccharides, organic acids, purity, invert, settling rate, calcium and magnesium. All combinations with calcium (lime, dolohydrate and dolomitic quicklime) decreased juice color, while clarification with magnesium alone or soda ash alone and in combination, increased color. Magnesium compounds and soda ash have potential in juice clarification, especially when there is a need to control calcium, but lime is superior in removing color, turbidity and polysaccharides.


Measurement of α-Amino Nitrogen in Sugar Using Fluorescence Measurement, Marianne McKee and Mary An Godshall, Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

Protein has been considered one of the necessary elements for floc formation in refined cane sugar, but because of the very low levels of protein in white sugar, it is difficult to measure. We recently examined ortho-phthaldiadehyde (OPA) as a sensitive reagent to measure α-amino nitrogen in white sugar. OPA is a fluorescent tag that reacts with primary amines to help identify proteins. Glutamine and asparagine, the most common amino acids in cane juice, were used to construct calibration curves and their combined curve used to measure low levels of primary amino nitrogen in refined cane sugar, white beet sugar and Indian plantation white sugar. Small volumes of sugar solution were reacted in a 96-well plate and read in an automated fluorometer, using excitation at 340 nm and emission at 465 nm. Only a fraction of a milliliter is needed for the test, and reaction is immediate. The limit of detection in sugar solutions was about 0.1 ppm.


Report of Collaborative Study on Dextran in White Sugar Using the Antibody Test, Mary An Godshall, Marianne McKee and Ron Triche, Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

The determination of dextran in white sugar is important for the manufacturers of shaped hard candies, in particular, round candies, such as Life Savers. A dextran concentration greater than 125 ppm will cause the sugar crystal to elongate, resulting in distortion of the shape of a hard candy. Thus, a life saver that is supposed to be perfectly round, will become slightly oblong. Very few refiners test for dextran in the finished refined sugar. A collaborative study, using the accepted AOAC and ICUMSA protocol, was conducted, with ten laboratories participating. Of these ten, only two laboratories routinely tested for dextran in white sugar. The Midland antibody method was chosen for its rapidity and ease. Samples ranged in dextran concentration from 15 to 240 ppm. Statistical analyses of the results showed that the test performed adequately, with outliers and variability ratios falling within acceptable parameters for all but the least concentrated sample.


Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Made from Sugar Cane Bagasse Lignin and Fibers, William Hoareau 1,2,3, Francielli Oliveira 2, Laurent Corcodel 1, Elisabete Frollini 2 and Alain Castellan 3, 1 CERF, Sainte Clotilde Cedex, Isle de Reunion, France; 2 Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; 3 Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Végétales EA-494, Université Bordeaux 1, Talence, France.

Fiberboards are wood-based materials made from lignocellulosic fibers bonded together by synthetic resin under heat and pressure. Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) is one of the wood composites most widely used. Bagasse, the solid lignocellulosic residue left after extraction of juice from sugarcane, can be use in fiberboard production.

In boards, the existence of physical, chemical or physical-chemical interactions between resin and fibers is very important for final product properties. The interactions between fibers and resin depend on the extension of contact area and on the affinity between components. The latter can be intensified by chemical treatments applied to the surface of the fibers and/or by changing the resin formulation. Both possibilities were considered, e.g. lignin was used as substitute of phenol in resin formulation and/or fibers were chemically modified.

The chemical modification of sugarcane bagasse fibers was done by oxidation with ClO2 and grafting furfuryl alcohol. Fiberboards were made with phenolic prepolymer or sugarcane bagasse lignophenolic prepolymers and bagasse fibers. Impact strength, water absorption and biological resistance, with two fungi, one brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta and the other white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, were examined on the new MDF material.


Elimination of Microorganisms Capable of Growing at High Temperature at Early Stages to Achieve Significant Advantages in Sugar and Alcohol Industries, V.M.Kulkarni, VM Biotech, Kothrud, Pune, India

Growth of microorganisms capable of growing at high temperature is often ignored in the sugarcane milling factory. Although there has been a significant amount of work done on this subject in diffuser factories, the significance of killing them and its impact to final molasses is seldom mentioned. Killing rather than inhibiting growth of these and mesophilic microbes should give significant impact during further processing. Chemicals used for controlling microbes must have the ability to kill them in the dormant phase, should show results in molasses and help in better performance of yeast during fermentation. These chemicals must have the ability to perform in cane juice conditions in a very short time and on dormant microbes as well as actively growing microbes. This is possible only for chemicals that act on various enzyme systems, including respiration. Carbamate or dithiocarbamate based biocides do have the potential to kill actively growing and dormant microbes in cane and beet juice conditions. They are "safe" to use in sugar industry for mill sanitation as they are degraded to non-toxic products by heat in a few minutes. The only difficulty is that they require more time to act can be eliminated by using formulation of synergistically acting compounds and some natural and or inert compounds to make them perform quickly to kill most of microbes in less than available time i.e. within 10 minutes for mills and 1 minute for factories having diffuser. This time frame is most important as even dormant microbes that have the ability to grow at high temperature must be killed prior to juice being heated or prior to its entry into juice heaters for mills and prior to diffuser entry. Carbamates will be destroyed after this stage and thermophilic bacteria will initiate growth after this stage. Using such formulations not only reduces inversion and acid formation at mills but also reduces destruction of reducing sugars during clarification and further processing (in the diffuser as well), resulting in reduction of the microbial population of sugar and molasses. This lower microbial count of sugar and molasses improves the keeping quality of both; especially molasses and helps in obtaining better fermentation by reduction of competition for sugars by microbes with yeast. Data from ten sugar factories with mills and one factory with diffuser are discussed.


Control of Surface Properties and Efficiency of Some Antifoams Used in Beet Sugar Processing, Abdelfattah Bensouissi, Barbara Roge and Mohamed Mathlouthi, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Industrielle, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France

In the sugar factory, foam formation occurs at all stages of processing, beginning with beet washing. One of the main process areas in this respect is that of diffusion extraction. Numerous problems are associated with foam formation, including extractor clogging, extraction yield decrease and sugar loss due to vat overflow. To prevent such difficulties, antifoams are injected. However, formulas of such technical aids are complex and generally patented. Thus, the user of antifoams has to use the services of suppliers which keep secret their formulas. In this work we have compared different formulas of antifoams by studying their mechanism of action and optimizing doses.

First, the relative efficacy of six samples of antifoams was determined as a function of concentration and temperature. It was shown that efficacy increases with concentration and reaches a threshold. The effect of temperature resides in the need that antifoams be added at a temperature above the turbidity point.

Secondly, antifoams were classified as a function of their hydrophobicity and efficacy at normal temperature. It was shown that efficacy increases with hydrophobicity. The more an antifoam is efficient, the slower its adsorption at the air/liquid interface. A mechanism of trapping of juice surface active molecules by antifoams is proposed.

Finally, adsorption kinetics was studied at high temperature for antifoams quickly adsorbed at normal temperature. It was found that increasing temperature facilitates the adsorption of antifoams at the interface. Such an adsorption is the more important the more efficient the antifoam at normal temperature. Decrease in activation energy for the adsorption of antifoam from subsurface to interface was proposed as a possible explanation of antifoam behaviour at interfaces.


Using Volumetric Growth Rates to Characterize Sucrose Crystallization, P. Martins and F. Rocha, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

The phenomenon of size-dependent growth is investigated from a theoretical and an experimental point of view, using the growth rates of sucrose measured in a laboratory batch crystallizer at 40 ºC. A new formalism is proposed, where crystal growth rates are expressed in terms of mass deposition per time and crystal volume units. As expected by the recently introduced "spiral nucleation model", this alternative definition is found to be size-independent over the considered supersaturation range. At same time, the conventional overall growth rate expressed per time and surface area units is found to be linearly dependent on crystal size. Besides being theoretically consistent, the volumetric growth rate concept is of great practical interest since crystal growth kinetics can be calculated in situations of unknown crystal number and size. The two-way effect of crystal size on mass transfer rates and on the integration kinetics is investigated by measuring the sucrose dissolution rates under reciprocal conditions of the growth experiments. Both effects are adequately described by combining a well-established diffusion-integration model and the spiral nucleation mechanism.


Automated Method for Rapid determination of Reducing Sugar, Jianguo Shi1, Deyou Wang2, Zongli Liu3 ,1 Biology Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences, China, 2 Luzhou Group, China, 3 Shandong Baolingbao Biotechnology Co.Ltd, China

In the sugar industry, determination of the reducing sugars may provide information about the quality of the raw matter, process control and characteristics of the produced sugar. For this determination, the Lane-Eynon method is often used. This method could be very accurate if all the procedure are performed with much care and by experienced analysts. Its main drawbacks are the long time delay, complicated procedure, and heavy reliance on experience. I n this paper, an automatic method based on flow phototitraion is proposed, which has been widely used for routine analysis in the sugar industries in China.

In this system, two linear-flow piston pumps to carry the reagents of Fehling working solution A, B and titrant to a titration cell with a precision of 2 l. The titration cell, made of modified polyester (black), has a volume of about 10 ml. A temperature sensor and a heating bar are inserted into the titration cell. A light-emitting diode (575-590 nm ) and a phototransistor, opposited to the LED at a distance of 15 mm are mounted in the cylindrical wall of the cell. A porous tube is placed along the light path. A magnetic stirrer is on the bottom of the cell. A single-chip micro-computer is used for pumps, temperature control, data acquisition and processing.

The procedure is programmed under the control of the microcomputer. Two heating steps are provided for quickly increasing and maintaining a higher temperature for the reaction solution. At first, when Fehling solutions A and B are delivered to pass through the tube near the wall of the cell, the solution is heated by heating coil and reaches a temperature of about 50 - 55 C in 35 sec. The next heating step is performed by a heating bar and the temperature of solution in the cell can be increased to 98-100 C in 25 sec and maintained between 98- 100 C during the titration process. The end-point is determined by a sharp voltage change; the titrant volume is recorded and the concentration of reducing sugar is calculated automatically. The result is shown on the screen and printed at the same time.

For reducing sugar determination, the bubble interference formed during boiling was eliminated by the porous tube along the light path. Glucose solution of 0.35% was used as the titrant and the injected sample volume was 200 l. The linear concentration range of reducing sugar was from 0 - 1.0%.The reagent consumption was 7ml. The photosensor response range was 0.1 - 1.8 mV. The determination time was less than 3 min. The results show that the relative standard deviation was 1.5% ( n = 8 ) and has a good agreement (r =0.9999) between the present method and the conventional method. There was no interference formed by bubbles or the muddiness of the samples. This method was simple, rapid, has low reagent consumption, with excellent accuracy and precision, and is suitable for routine analysis.


Reducing Analysis Costs: Development and Adoption of a Silylation Only Sugar Analysis for Cane Payment Purposes, Stephen N Walford, Sugar Milling Research Institute, c/o University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, South Africa 

The Sugar Milling Research Institute has routinely analysed mixed juice (MJ) and final molasses samples by gas chromatography for sucrose, glucose and fructose for the past 20 years. The standard method is based on that of Schaffler and Morel du Boil and is used for cane payment purposes in South Africa. The method requires that two internal standards and a two-step derivatisation procedure (oximation followed by silylation) be followed. This procedure is both tedious and costly. However it does provide both accurate and precise results. Over the last few years, economic pressures in the industry have led to a continual re-evaluation of all aspects of costs, including analysis for cane payment purposes. This study considered the possibility of using one internal standard and a one-step derivatisation procedure for the analysis of sucrose, glucose and fructose in MJ for cane payment purposes. The research brief included constraints that the results had to "as good" as those from the existing method (good precision, accuracy, no bias). The paper describes the study over a two year period leading to the adoption of the method as an official method of analysis that is now used routinely.


The Content of Polyphenols in Sugars of Different Origins, Joanna Milala and Maciej Wojtczak, Technical University of Lodz, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Chemical Technology of Food, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz, Poland

Increasing production of white cane sugar, particularly the opening of the European market for cane sugar, makes identification of white sugar origin an important issue. It is therefore important to find sugar components characteristic of cane and beet sugar. The content of polyphenolic components seems to be one of such factors. The aim of the present paper is the evaluation of the differences in the content of polyphenols in sugars of different origins.

The investigated material consisted of four samples of white and brown cane sugar and four samples of beet white sugar. The total content of polyphenols in sugar samples was determined by means of Folin-Ciocaltell method after extraction. Polyphenols were extracted from the sugar samples by means of SPE technique. For more precise characterization of polyphenolic compounds in the analyzed sugars the extracts were analyzed by an HPLC method with UV DAD detection

The total polyphenolic content in the cane sugars ranged from 3 mg/kg for white cane sugar to 26 mg/kg for brown sugars. For beet sugars the content of polyphenols was much smaller, ranging from 0.1 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg. HPLC analysis showed significant differences between the analyzed sugars in the content of polyphenols and their compounds.


The Content of Soluble and Insoluble Calcium in White Sugar, Maciej Wojtczak and Krystyna Lisik, Technical University of Lodz, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Institute of Chemical Technology of Food, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz, Poland

Nowadays many industrial sugar consumers, as a result of high competition in the sugar market, introduce additional requirements for white sugar quality. These requirements concern mainly the content of various impurities in sugar and their impact on sugar and sugar solution properties, such as the time of filtration, the content of insoluble matter, creating flocs, turbidity or foaming. One of the most important properties of sugar is the turbidity of sugar solution. The turbidity of sugar solution depends mainly on the content of insoluble impurities in sugar. One of the main components of insoluble matter in sugar is calcium.

The paper presents the content of soluble and insoluble calcium in white sugars from different Polish sugar factories. The calcium content in sugar was determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) both in soluble form and in two insoluble forms retained on membrane filters with pore size 8.0μ and 0.45μ. We determined the turbidity of sugar solutions as the difference in the results of absorbance measurements before and after filtration of a 50 % sugar solution.

The turbidity of analyzed sugars was from 4.2 IU to 136.5 IU, and the average turbidity was 42.4 IU. Total content of calcium in the analyzed sugars was significantly different and ranged from 2.5 mg/kg to 40.6 mg/kg, on average 11.6 mg/kg. The main element of insoluble matter in sugars was calcium, whose content ranged from 0.2 mg/kg to 1.7 mg/kg. The content of insoluble calcium in general was correlated with the value of insoluble matter in the analyzed sugars. The proportion of insoluble calcium to total calcium in different sugars was significantly different, and ranged from 5% to 61%, on average 20%. We also determined the content of calcium in two fractions of insoluble matter. The first fraction contained particles with diameter > 8.0μ, and the second fraction contained the particles with the diameter from 0.45μ to 8.0μ. The content of calcium in the second fraction was generally lower than the content of calcium in the first fraction. The highest content of calcium in the second fraction was noted in sugar samples with the highest turbidity. We found some correlation between the turbidity and content of calcium, especially of the total content of calcium and the content of calcium in the fraction of insoluble matter with particles from 0.45μ to 8.0μ.




Brazil will host this year SPRI Conference on Sugar Processing Research.  One of Brazil's greatest features is the Brazilian Rain Forest, which houses the world largest variety of birds, around 1,750 bird species (almost a fifth of the world's birds).  This year's conference logo symbolizes a tropical bird in the ever-changing struggle efforts to save the Rain Forest from complete commercialism. The Spanish doubloon below the tropical bird symbolizes one of the typical foreign exchange of currency during the time period of its discovery on April 22, 1500.  During the 16th thru the 18th centuries, Brazil was a colony of Portugal.

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